Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Imagine being brought up in a family speaking only one language for your entire life and then you had to move to a foreign land where the language is different. If you had a choice of progressively learning this new language over the course of six to nine years or being put into a classroom and have to virtually teach yourself the language by listening to others around you which would you choose? Late exit bilingual education is a more effective form of bilingual education compared to the English immersion form of bilingual education in the fact that there are more benefits and less adverse effects. There are many reasons why late exit bilingual education should be the choice of public schools everywhere with high minority populations. One of the effects of late exit bilingual education is that the students would be able to maintain their cultural background instead of having to give up one or the other. Language is a big part of a person’s culture. Late exit bilingual educatio n gives the non-English speaking students more time to master the English language which is not an easy language to learn in three years as the English immersion strategy teaches. The findings of the Ramirez team in 1991 evaluating the effectiveness of English immersion, early exit bilingual education, and late exit bilingual education further prove why late exit bilingual education is the one that needs to be used. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã To look at why keeping one’s culture is important one just needs to look at how and why this country was founded. The first Americans from England came here so they wouldn’t have to conform to everything the rulers of England wanted. Immigrants founded this country. One of the greatest things about the United States is that there are so many different types of cultures everywhere you look. It is true that one needs to learn the English language to be successful, but forcing one to give up his or her cultural background is going against everything this country stands for. English immersion does just that by forcing the student to give up his or her cultural background and language (Faltis 191). Late exit bilingual education allows the child to progress effectively through the educational system with the instruction given in English to the extent to make this possible (Schneider, 1976, p. 128.). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã To throw a student into a classroom that speaks a language that is not familiar to them and forcing them to adjust in three years like English immersion does is not fair to the student.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Ernest Sosa: Externalism Ernest Sosa likes externalism. He thinks that it is intuitively correct. But he must and does agree that it must be clarified in order to avoid certain problems. So, his mission in this paper is to first define what he calls "Generic Reliabilism," then to show how it is susceptible to certain objections, then to present a modified version of it, and to show that this new version is, in general, better than its predecessor. Let us look at his argument. First, we get the usual definition of generic reliabilism: S is justified in his belief that p at t if the belief is produced by some faculty that usually produces true beliefs. Then, we get a couple of Alvin Goldman's notions of justification with Sosa's revisions. A belief is strongly justified iff it is well formed, and by means of a truth conducive process. A belief is weakly justified iff it is "blameless" (not the result of an intentional mistake?) but ill-formed, and the believer is not aware that the belief is ill- formed. A belief is superweakly justified iff the process that produces the belief is unreliable but the subject did not intentionally come to hold the belief because it was acquired unreliably. And, finally, a belief has strong meta-justification iff the subject neither believes that nor can determine if the belief is ill-formed (hence the "meta-" prefix), and the subject is aware of the process by which he got the belief and that the process is reliable. OK, seems reasonable enough. But, Sosa points out, there are a couple of scenarios (actually, three, but Sosa concentrates mainly on the two listed below) in which these conceptions of justification just do not work. The "new evil demon" problem takes a couple of forms in the article, but what it amounts to is that if a person S attains beliefs through something other than his usual faculties (e.g. senses, reasoning, etc.) like evil demons or random neurological stimulators, or whatever, then that person's beliefs are not attained through a reliable process (we are assuming that demons are, as usual, not benevolent bearers of truth). But, we do not want to say, or at least Sosa doesn't, that the deceived believer is completely unjustified in his beliefs; so, what level of justification do we assign to his situation? If, by some amazing coincidence, the random processes or demons generate a consistent and coherent set of beliefs, then we can say that the subject is weakly and meta- justified. But, t hat situation is not very likely, and thus we need the notion of superweak
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Saint AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s View on Sexuality The famous bishop of Hippo, St. Augustine, is claimed as a cornerstone of Christian theology by both Catholics and Protestants. Many of his views are regarded by Christians as authoritative interpretations of the Bible because they have withstood heated debate throughout the centuries. Christians ought to ask, however, whether such allegiance is justifiable in all cases. Augustine's idea of sex after matrimony, for example, is very narrow, restricting actions and emotions married Christians today consider part of the beauty of intercourse. A logical assertion then, is that Augustine's view of sexuality, as delineated in many writings, is a response to his life of sensuality prior to salvation; therefore, his idea about the intent for sex within marriage stems more from his former sin than from Biblical perspective. St. Augustine's sordid lifestyle as a young man, revealed in Confessions, serves as a logical explanation for his limited view of the purpose of sexuality in marriage. His life from adolescence to age thirty-one was so united to passionate desire and sensual pleasure, that he later avoided approval of such emotions even within the sanctity of holy union. From the age of sixteen until he was freed of promiscuity fifteen years later, Augustine's life was woven with a growing desire for illicit acts, until that desire finally became necessity and controlled his will. His lust for sex began in the bath houses of Tagaste, where he was idle without schooling and "was tossed aboutÃ¢â¬ ¦and boiling over inÃ¢â¬ ¦fornications" (2.2). Also during that time, young Augustine displayed his preoccupation with sexual experience by fabricating vulgarities simply to impress his peers. In descript... ... Anderson, Douglas L., ed. Augustine. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1979. Augustine. The Confessions of St. Augustine: Books I-X. Trans. F.J. Sheed. New York: Sheed & Ward, 1942. Babcock, William S., ed. The Ethics of St. Augustine. Atlanta: Scholars P, 1991. Battenhouse, Roy W., ed. A Companion to the Study of St. Augustine. Grand Rapids: Baker,1955. Halsall, Paul. "St. Augustine: From 'On Marriage and Concupiscence.'" Internet Medieval Source Book. Oct. 1998. 3 Nov. 2000 <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/aug-marr.html>. Hooker, Richard. Early Christianity: Augustine. 6 Jun. 1999. 3 Nov. 2000 <http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CHRIST/AUG.HTM>. Oates, Whitney J., ed. Basic Writings of Saint Augustine. 1948. 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1980. Rist, John M. Augustine: Ancient Thought Baptized. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Sindy Veritus March 9, 2013 Global Studies: Argumentative Essay South African Apartheid Apartheid in South Africa was a system of racial segregation enforced through legislation by the National Party government from 1948 to 1994 of South Africa. Racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times by the Dutch and British. Apartheid as an official policy was introduced following the general election in 1948. Apartheid was developed after War World II by the Afrikaner-dominated National Party and was first colonized by the Dutch and then the English came in and took most of it away.The population of South Africa was classified into four groups which was the Black, White, Indian, and Colored. The Colored group included people regarded as being of mixed descent including people of Bantu, and European ancestry and much more. Knowing that Apartheid was a system of laws created to keep the white population in control. The Group Areas act of 1951 controlled people where they could of live. The black where driven far away from their city, although their jobs were still in the cities in the white neighborhood.The Bantu education Act meant that the black students were disadvantaged with their education. Ã¢â¬Å"Bus fares were expensive and catching public transport everyday was expensive and caused hardship and depression for the black people. Ã¢â¬ (Wikipedia) The apartheid policy was highly effective of achieving its goal of privileged conduct for whites. On the other hand, the white population supported apartheid because they felt it was there to own the land of South Africa.There were many white pro apartheid people because of the much larger population of black South Africans causing the white people to believe that if the black were given rights and freedom, they would of no longer have political power. The white people were worried because they thought that their race would be taken over and they would lose the control that they always had. As a final point , In February 1990 President FW de Klerk announced the release of Nelson Mandela and began the exclusion of the Apartheid system.In 1992 a white council approved the reform process and on April 27, 1994 the first democratic elections were held in South Africa with people of all different races being able to vote. After the Apartheid came to an end in South Africa, people had more freedom. The Africans now have a little more money now that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not all going to the white. South Africa is now peaceful and the anniversary of the elections, which was held on April 27, is celebrated as a public holiday in South Africa known as Freedom Day.
Friday, August 16, 2019
A survey conducted in the United States in 2002 revealed that approximately 38 million people were using herbal and dietary supplements, citing them as important for their health, yet only about one third of them had reported the usage of these herbal products to a qualified medical practitioner. Estimates from other reports suggested that approximately 25% of those seeking medical treatment for serious medical conditions were also using Ã¢â¬ËunconventionalÃ¢â¬â¢ treatment which they rarely reported to their doctors. Herbal and dietary supplements have become readily available and can be purchased in almost all retail outlets. This makes it easy for patients to use them without supervision from a qualified medical practitioner (Medscape Today, 2007). Most people tend to think that since herbs have been obtained from nature, they are automatically safe. But is this really the case? True, some of these products may be consumed without occasioning any harm to the body but some may contain contaminants that may lead to medical complications and even death. For this reason, it is important that the US Food and Drug Administration regulate these herbal supplements for safety and efficacy (Finkel & Pray, 2004). Concerns arising from use of Herbal supplements The use of herbal and dietary supplements is not under regulation by the US Food and Drug administration. This is very dangerous since it means that these products have not been tested for purity and potency yet they are being consumed by humans in large quantities every day (Medscape Today, 2007). Many plants are quite toxic depending on the climate as well as the condition of the soil where they were grown. The FDA warns that most of the herbal products which are marketed have not been tested and do not contain any information on their toxic content. Thus, while most users may escape injury, there have been some isolated reports of some people dying or incurring grave injuries as a result of using herbs (Finkel & Pray, 2004). Other than the natural toxicity which may be present in plants, it has also been reported that the preparation of these herbs is questionable. Medscape today reports that some of the prepared herbs have been found to actually contain prescription drugs and worse still, heavy metals. These products are never labeled as part of the ingredients and this poses a risk to those who consume them. The danger here lies not only in the fact that these contaminants may cause toxic poisoning to the patients but also in the fact that some patients are allergic to certain products and may consume them without knowing, thus endangering their lives (Medscape Today, 2007). Currently, the labeling of products from herbs is under the regulation of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act. Manufactures of herbal products are required to make general statements on the safety and efficacy of the product. This includes a compulsory statement that disclaims the product from diagnosis, prevention or cure of any disease. Unfortunately, these labels have been designed to promote the use of the product but do not really give the consumer any concrete information on the nature and content of the product. If the FDA is mandated to regulate these products, they will be able to place more necessary information such as side effects and contraindications so that the users know what to expect. This will also put herbal products in the same category as prescription drugs which might probably make the users more inclined to report the usage of these products to their physicians (Medscape Today, 2007). Another issue that raises concerns on the efficacy and safety of the herbal supplements is the fact that no testing or quality control is performed on them prior to being sold in the market. As such, a consumer cannot really be sure if the supposed ingredients that the manufacturer claims to be the contents are actually there or if the product can actually perform the healing wonders that it is purported to. Other than the obvious rip-off, this issue presents concerns over the overall safety of the product (Finkel & Pray, 2004). In deed, the effects of no FDA regulation on herbal products have been seen in the ban on some of the herbal supplements such as those containing ephedra whose usage had resulted in adverse effects on the cardiovascular system in patients. Another product, Kava, was also prohibited due to worries on hepatotoxicity (Medscape Today, 2007). It is rather unfortunate that the FDA can only act against the use of herbal supplements as they evaluate them case by case. In the event that a product has brought about serious injury, investigations will not occur unless there are many other similar reports. This is rather dangerous because by the time the FDA reacts; many people could have been permanently injured or killed as a result of using the product, a situation which could have been easily avoided if the products had been suggested to quality control and analysis. Prevention is always better than cure and mandating the FDA to regulate herbal products will not only go a long way in improving the quality of these products but is also bound to save many lives (Finkel & Pray, 2004). Evidence supporting lack of Safety and Efficacy in Herbal Products There are very many herbal supplements which are available in the market and which are purported to heal a variety of ailments ranging from the common cold to more serious illnesses such as cancer. Some have been successful in healing these ailments but there are those which have failed in achieving this goal. Other than the above mentioned herbal products, Ephedra and kava whose usage was banned due to the danger posed to the users, there are other products which also exhibit the same concerns. Serious reactions to some herbal supplements purchased over the counter have also been recorded with permanent injuries and even death. A case study by Marks (2007), researches on the effects of Tricana which was sold as a herbal supplement to the user and had been hailed for promoting good effects to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s metabolism which included, loss of weight and the enhancement of energy. Mark focuses on a patient who developed dilated cardiomyopathy after ingesting this supplement, a potentially fatal condition. In deed, the use of this product did not promote the much hailed beneficial effects but instead caused insomnia, nervous conditions and diarrhea. The FDA withdrew Tricana from the market in the year 2000 as a result of these safety concerns (Marks, 2007). Other products include Chaparral which was purported to be a blood purifier as well as a cure for cancer and has also resulted in adverse reactions. It has caused very many cases of liver and kidney related conditions and actually left one patient in need of a liver transplant. Apparently the research on this product has found that the use of chaparral has no benefit whatsoever on the body and pharmacist were advised to inform consumers against using this product (Finkel & Pray, 2004). These are just a few examples of the dangerous effects that over the counter herbal supplements have posed to their users. Thus, one cannot help but feel that some form of regulation by the FDA will have prevented such occurrences. Granted, some herbal products have a record of success. But it is precisely due to the other dangers posed by the other supplements that the US Food and Drug Administration should regulate the use of these products. Right now, the reaction of the FDA is more reactive than proactive; removing herbal supplements from the market only after they have occasioned some serious harm to the user. America cannot afford to have knee jerk reactions to matters that concern the safety of the public. Conclusion While we advocate for the FDA to regulate the use of these products so as to promote their safety and efficacy, it will also be in order to engage in some form of public awareness so that the consumers can know ways in which to check for the safety of the herbal supplements. If they have to buy these products, they should be encouraged to purchase them from pharmacists who are more inclined to give them correct information on the product efficacy. Other sales agents are more inclined to make misleading statements on the product so as to make a quick sale. Above all, it is essential for consumers to be encouraged to report the usage of any of these herbal supplements to their physicians especially if they are taking other medication to prevent any adverse reactions as some of these drugs may not interact well (Finkel & Pray, 2004). ]
Birth and death are neither under our control nor a matter of choice People are born without much effort on their part and die without any choice of their own. I look upon life as a game and, when I have finished it, I will leave the field without any hesitation and complaint. The life on this earth is quite enough for any reasonable man. But there is no harm in getting a new base of life, if one can have all the good things of life.Every child during early years of school read stories and fancy many of the characters portrayed in them. I once read a Chinese story illustrating this point of view. There was a man who was in hell and about to be reincarnated, and said to the King of Reincarnation, Ã¢â¬Å"If you want me to return to the earth as a human being, I will only go on my own conditions. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And what are they? Ã¢â¬ asked the King. The man replied, Ã¢â¬Å"I must be born the son of a cabinet minister and father of a future cabinet minister.I must have ten thousand a cres of land surrounding my home and fish ponds and fruits of every kind and a beautiful wife, good and loving to me, and rooms stocked full of grain and trunks full to the top with money, and I myself must be a Grand Councilor or Duke of the First Rank and enjoy honor and prosperity and live until I am hundred years old. Ã¢â¬ And the King of Reincarnation replied, Ã¢â¬Å"If I were such a lot on earth, I would go and be incarnated myself, and not give it to you.This is a very reasonable answer to any man who wants to have all the good things of life. Life is to be accepted with all its joys and sorrows, with its sunny days and cloudy nights. The world in which we live is necessarily an imperfect world, and man is, as it were, sandwiched between. Therefore, I do not seek at any moment in my life a world which is perfect in all respects. If I am given the chance (I wonder, if it ever happen) to be born again, I will not lay down any unreasonable conditions unlike the man in the Chi nese story which may embarrass my Creator.I shall be glad if I am delivered upon this beautiful earth as its transient guest and asked to leave after seventy five years (I ask only for this much concession) of rough and tumble life. After I have seen two generations of children and grand children I should be perfectly satisfied to rise from my seat and go away saying: It was a good game and I have really played well and enjoyed my innings to the full. But before my second earthly life comes to an end, I must make amends for the mistakes that I had committed in the first life.This time I will choose a country where people enjoy greater peace and facilities of life like United Kingdom or United States of America, or Switzerland or Norway; any will do provided they do not object to my skin color. I will not go to a school where teachers take students as pitchers and try to pour into what they deem necessary. Unfortunately, some time teachers take a conscious pleasure in insulting stude nts with their sly remarks. It does a little good to the mental advancement of back benchers and average students.I will go to a school where cricket is considered more important that literature or physics. I had enough of literature and physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics in my first life. All these subjects are good in their own way, but for myself, I am content to be less studious and more practical. After I have finished my education, I should like to become a business executive. I do know that the life of business executive in America or any European country is not easy. I have examples of lives of Bill Gates and Steve Jobs.But what makes me comfortable is that a business executive is always too busy to think of higher things such as poetry, art and contemplation on scientific notes. But I do not care for art and science if I have obvious things like the enjoyment of food, a laughing party of friends, my children ramping about on my grassy lawn or playing on merry go ro und. After all life is not spirit but matter. Some of us who are spiritually inclined towards life, may not like this picture of life, but they can have their own type of life when they are born again.A business executive, as you know, makes a good deal of money, by many clever tricks. When I have made a few millions I will charter a plane and go round the world. Singapore and Siam, Honolulu and Tokyo, Geneva and New Jersey will offer all their enchantments to me. I may even go to Africa and do a bit of big hunting. But I am terribly afraid of lions and rhinos. I will ask somebody to kill them for me and then get myself photographed while sitting on a big lion! I know the reader would be laughing at my cowardice, but this is how we big business executives do lion hunting.Now comes the sad part of the story. When I come back from my travels around the world, I go for a medical checkup. My doctor, who has specialized in all types of cancers, tells me that I am Ã¢â¬Å"ripeÃ¢â¬ for a cancer. It may be a Ã¢â¬Ëtropic of cancerÃ¢â¬â¢ but nobody can laugh at his own indisposition. I take his word for granted and apply for a bed in one of the most modern hospital. The doctors kill me in order to find out the cancer which never existed. I die without a word of protest, because I had enough of life. I have no regrets or remorse leaving this world.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Vegan And Vegetarian Being a vegan in many ways could help the world from suffering the hunger and many more issue such as the global warming, because veganism ideology doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t to use even an animal product and not to eat all kind of meat. But sometimes, a vegan mostly becomes an activist of the animal rights, and even worse a vegan sometimes can become very fanatic, for example some of them wonÃ¢â¬â¢t come to movies which contain an animal in the play, because they know that the animal was being pushed to do the exact scenario.While being a vegetarian is consuming non-meat food, but still can consume any dairy product, such as milks and eggs. And being a vegetarian is only a belief for some people who usually become a vegetarian for some primary target, sometimes it could be to be healthy or for diets only, because based on the research, being a vegetarian is the healthiest diets ever after being a vegan which is healthier. Since being a vegan is more difficult than being a vegetarian, and then I myself assume that most of vegan people must be started from being a vegetarian.So being a vegan is a higher class above a vegetarian, itÃ¢â¬â¢s like being a vegan is taking a next step from being a vegetarian, but still there are many people who does be a vegan immediately, means they donÃ¢â¬â¢t start from being a vegetarian. In addition, if every people in the world is being vegans, then the world would never suffering the hunger and the stocks of the food can be multiplied by 3, because the food that we used to raised dairy animal isnÃ¢â¬â¢t equal to the result of the meat.